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Paper   IPM / Cognitive Sciences / 13200
School of Cognitive Sciences
  Title:   Involvement of opioidergic and nitrergic systems in memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice
1.  M. Nasehi
2.  M. Piri
3.  K. Abbolhasani
4.  M.R. Zarrindast
  Status:   Published
  Journal: Behavioral Pharmacology
  Vol.:  24
  Year:  2013
  Pages:   180-194
  Supported by:  IPM
Bile duct ligation (BDL) is an animal model used in cholestatic disease research. Both opioidergic and nitrergic systems are known to be involved in cholestasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible interaction between these two systems in BDL-induced memory formation and exploratory behaviors in mice. Male mice weighing 25�??30 g were divided into nonoperated controls, sham-operated, and BDL groups. One-trial step-down and hole-board paradigms were used to assess memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Cholestasis did not alter memory acquisition while increasing exploratory behaviors 7 days after BDL. A pretraining intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg), or naloxone (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/kg) did not alter memory acquisition or exploratory behaviors, whereas morphine (5 and 7.5 mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition in sham-operated animals. Moreover, although injection of L-NAME and naloxone exerted no effect on memory acquisition in the 7 days post-BDL mice, L-arginine (100 and 200 mg/kg) and morphine (2.5, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg) injection reduced it. In contrast, L-NAME and naloxone, but not morphine or L-arginine, reduced the BDL-induced exploratory behaviors. Coadministration of subthreshold doses of morphine (1.25 mg/kg) and L-arginine (50 mg/kg) caused a memory deficit in 7 days post-BDL mice. However, the memory deficit induced by the effective doses of morphine (2.5 mg/kg) or L-arginine (200 mg/kg) in these mice was restored by the administration of either naloxone (0.5 mg/kg) or L-NAME (40 mg/kg). In addition, naloxone and L-NAME reduced the exploratory behaviors in L-arginine-pretreated mice but not in morphine-pretreated mice. We conclude that there appears to be a synergistic effect between opioidergic and nitrergic systems on memory acquisition and exploratory behaviors in cholestatic mice.

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