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Paper   IPM / P / 13878
School of Physics
  Title:   Quantum Jump from Singularity to Outside of Black Hole
  Author(s): 
1.  F. Semih Dündar
2.  K. Hajian
  Status:   Published
  Journal: JHEP
  Vol.:  1602
  Year:  2016
  Pages:   175
  Supported by:  IPM
  Abstract:
Considering the role of black hole singularity in quantum evolution, a resolution to the firewall paradox is presented. It is emphasized that if an observer has the singularity as a part of his spacetime, then the semi-classical evolution would be non-unitary as viewed by him. Specifically, a free-falling observer inside the black hole would have a Hilbert space with non-unitary evolution; a quantum jump for particles encountering the singularity to outside of the horizon as late Hawking radiations. The non-unitariness in the jump resembles the one in collapse of wave function, but preserves entanglements. Accordingly, we elaborate the first postulate of black hole complementarity: freely falling observers who pass through the event horizon would have non-unitary evolution, while it does not have physically measurable effects for them. Besides, no information would be lost in the singularity. Taking the modified picture into account, the firewall paradox can be resolved, respecting No Drama. A by-product of our modification is that roughly half of the entropy of the black hole is released close to the end of evaporation in the shape of very hot Hawking radiation.

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